Gamma ray astronomy, the branch of high energy astrophysics that studies the sky in energetic gamma-ray photons, is destined to play a crucial role in the exploration of nonthermal phenomena in the Universe in their most extreme and violent forms. The great potential of this discipline offers impressive coverage of many "hot topics" of modern astrophysics and cosmology, such as the origin of galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays, particle acceleration and radiation processes under extreme astrophysical conditions, and the search for dark matter. The recent observational results and exciting theoretical predictions provide a strong rationale for a deep study of cosmic radiation with forthcoming satellite-borne and ground-based detectors in the so-called very high energy domain of the electromagnetic spectrum above 1010 eV.This invaluable book presents the motivations and highlights the principal objectives of the field, as well as demonstrates its intrinsic links to other branches of high energy astrophysics. Preference is given to three topical areas: (i) origin of cosmic rays; (ii) physics and astrophysics of relativistic jets; (iii) observational gamma ray cosmology. Also, an essential part of the book is devoted to the discussion of the principal mechanisms of production and absorption of energetic gamma-rays in different astrophysical environments, as well as to the description of the detection methods of high energy cosmic gamma-radiation.
This book provides a valuable resource for anyone who wishes to understand how sustainable use of energy can lead to increased efficiency of industrial supply chains and improved financial profitability. The book is organized around real examples and case studies that can be applied to real-world problems. Furthermore, insight is provided by an international panel of contributors, and the book provides comprehensive coverage of current practice and future developments in the evolution of sustainable supply chains and energy consumption.
The text underlines how organizations are now looking seriously at supply chain assets in order to help their suppliers retool and focus on renewable energy. Renewable energy technology is a fast growing market with promising financial returns and substantial environmental gains; this book shows how the right management of renewable investments can have significant advantages by:
providing critical opportunities in driving costs down and making renewable energy sources more competitive with conventional energy;
making infrastructure expansion easier;
increasing employment in manufacturing and services supply chains in order to support renewable energy generation; and
mitigating the impacts of climate change.
This book is intended for business professionals, researchers and students working in supply chain management or energy management.
Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society.