Probably more than any other element, iron markedly influences the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments in the earth. Considering its transition metal status, with potential variation in electronic configuration, ionic radius, and magnetic moment, combined with its abundance and relatively large mass, little wonder that one sees its unique influence on every hand. Pre- sentations at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO AS!) on Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals reviewed and discussed the occurrence, behavior, and properties of Fe-bearing minerals found in soils and in the clay mineral groups kaolinite, smectite, and mica. Also discussed at the NATO AS! were the basic chemical properties of Fe, methods for separating and identifying Fe in minerals, and the role of Fe minerals in weathering and other soil-forming processes. The present publication is the reviewed and edited proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute. The sequence of chapters follows the general pattern beginning with introductory chapters which overview the general occurrence of Fe in the earth and its chemistry, both generally and in mineral environments, followed by identification and characterization methods for Fe and Fe phases in minerals. The properties and behavior of Fe oxides, Fe-bearing clay minerals, and other Fe minerals in soils are then described, and the text ends with a summary of the role of Fe in soil-forming processes. A Table of Contents and subject index are provided to assist the reader in finding specific topics within the text.
The book is divided into four sections, minerals, crystals, rocks and ores. Section A incorporates nine s, begins with presenting salient features of the earth--its structure and composition. The second Minerals and Mineralogy briefly tells about their diversity and their categorisation and introduces the interesting way they are named. Crystal chemistry the third is the heart and soul of mineralogy and deals in somewhat details about the building blocks of minerals -atoms and ions and the way they form diverse types of minerals are. It tries to tell why every combination of chemical compounds cannot result into a naturally occurring mineral. The fourth and fifth s deal with Properties of Minerals, physical and optical. The s describe various physical properties that are helpful in the identification both in hand specimens and as thin section under the microscope. These two s are adequately aided with a number of illustrations, photographs and photomicrographs to bring home the point. five deals with classification of minerals and their occurrence and forms a prelude to the next two s on descriptive mineralogy. Important silicate and non silicate minerals are described in s eight and nine. A brief description of mineral uses is dealt with in both descriptive mineralogy as well Section D on mineral deposits, however, the last , Mineral uses presents an overall picture and will be interesting as well as educating to students and even general readeSection B is devoted to crystals and crystallography. one introduces the subject while two presents basic crystallographic elements. three deals with the main six crystals systems while also giving a preliminary idea about stereographic projection and x-ray crystallography. Section C covers petrology, beginning with introduction to science of petrology, rock nomenclature. two is devoted to the study of igneous rocks, including their forms, composition, textures, structures, classification and description. Sedimentary rocks is the theme of three while different aspects of metamorphic rocks including kinds and agents of metamorphism and classification and description of metamorphism. The last portion of this also considers metamorphism in the background of global tectonics. five, the rock cycle presents a concise summary of geological events that have shaped the planet earth. The last section D is what geology is all about for a man on the street and its significance in nation building--the Ore minerals. It begins with what ore is and its place in human affairs as a well as presenting the important terminology in economic geology. two deals with ore genesis and presents various hypogene and supergene process that carves out ore deposits from non economic materials. three, mineral deposits and global tectonics is becoming a very popular theme among the earth scientists. A brief introduction of the same will be certainly appreciated by the student community and prompt them for further study in this direction. A general survey of India's mineral resources is the theme of four. It covers almost all of the commonly used ores, metallic, non metallic or fuels. The last of section D and the boom, 'Indian mineral industry: some facts and figures' will present where our country stands in the realm of mineral resources. Latest available data of resources, production, export, import, organisations that matter and other useful facts and figures are presented.
Over the last several decades, the number of people who are actively involved in the hobby or science of mineral collecting has grown at an increasing pace. In response to the growing demand for informa- tion which this large and active group has created, a number of books have been published dealing with mineralogy. As a result, the reader now has a choice among mineral locality guides, field handbooks, photo collections, or books dedicated to the systematic description of minerals. However, as interest in mineralogy has grown, as collectors have become increasingly knowledgeable and aware of mineralogy in its many facets, the need for more specialized information has also grown. Nowhere is this need greater than in the subject of the fluorescence of minerals. The number of collectors who now main- tain a fluorescent collection is substantial, interest is constantly increasing, and manufacturers have recently responded by the intro- duction of new ultraviolet equipment with major improvements in utility and performance. Yet when the collector searches for any information on this subject, little will be found. He or she will seek in vain for the answers to questions which present themselves as in- terest in fluorescent minerals grows and matures. Which minerals fluoresce? Where are fluorescent minerals found? What makes a mineral fluoresce? Why does ultraviolet light produce fluorescence? What is an activator, and how does it contribute to fluorescence? On these matters, the available mineralogy books are largely silent.